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New discovery regarding H2O ions.



     "Contrary to the long-held belief that ions form an electrical double layer, orienting water molecules in a single direction, the research demonstrates a completely different scenario.

Both positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions) are found to be depleted from the water/air interface.

More intriguingly, the cations and anions of simple electrolytes can orient water molecules in both upward and downward directions, overturning existing models"



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