Author Topic: Synephrine, Octopamine, Hordenine, Tyramine, and N-Methyltyramine  (Read 2021 times)

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  • Guest
Synephrine, Octopamine, Hordenine, Tyramine, and N-Methyltyramine
« on: September 01, 1999, 12:28:00 AM »

Following on the foetid footsteps of the Worlockian one's Ephedra Nevandesis (?) excursions into the dangerous washes and foothills found in the Sonoran outback, I have sniffed and snorted in various places looking for truffles of an un-ordinary type.

In my meanderings hither and yon, an interesting possibility arose to my wondering eye: and 4 months before Xmas, at that!

Available in 10% tinctures (or infusions: I know not which) by weight of blended active ingredient, "bitter orange" or Chinese Zhi Shi (?)  may in fact be of interest to those of reduced capacity, or reducing  intent: a claim  to both categories is herein made by your writer.

Although tyramine is if I recall of no great fondness to those with a predeliction towards MAOI's, the others display a characteristic which inspired me to request consideration of those with greater knowlege than I of the following question:

Is this material one which could be a reasonable starting material for derivation of exhilerating substances not unlike those derived from it's cousin, the waif-bush referred to above in Worlockian terms??

Has anyone experience in this regard??

Is there a possibility of making poison should one employ simple acid base extraction, and electro-reductive processes?(ALWAYS careful to take care of the test-monkey!)

Thank you for your consideration.



Citrus fruits contain trace amounts of a substance known as synephrine. The highest concentration is found in two Chinese varieties of citrus fruit known as Citrus aurantium and Citrus unshiu.

Citrus aurantium is known to Chinese herbalists as zhi shi, or bitter orange, and has been used for centuries to relieve allergies, asthma, colds and inflammatory conditions.

The pharmacological actions of synephrine include direct alpha-adrenergic agonist action and possible indirect beta-adrenergic action (both to be discussed later).

Synephrine functions as a decongestant, and is known to maintain normal blood pressure levels. At a certain stage of maturity, Citrus aurantium contains a rare combination of five adrenergic (resembling Adrenaline or epinephrine which occur naturally in the human body) amines: Synephrine, Octopamine, Hordenine, Tyramine, and N-Methyltyramine.

Both synephrine and octopamine have been shown to occure naturally in tissue of mammals (including human tissue) synephrine is found only in the adrenal gland while octopamine is found in several organs including: heart, spleen, vas deferens, intestine, kidney, liver, lung and brain.


  • Guest
Re: Synephrine, Octopamine, Hordenine, Tyramine, and N-Methyltyramine
« Reply #1 on: September 01, 1999, 02:07:00 AM »
I can just see it now,  Junoir Bees everywhere smoking bitter orange.                  


  • Guest
Re: Synephrine, Octopamine, Hordenine, Tyramine, and N-Methyltyramine
« Reply #2 on: September 02, 1999, 05:43:00 AM »
Please consider the following as regards their potential for experimentation:


1 [4 hydroxyphenyl]2-methylamino ethanol.


DL-1 [p-hydroxyphenyl]2-amino ethanol

Thank you.



  • Guest
Re: Synephrine, Octopamine, Hordenine, Tyramine, and N-Methyltyramine
« Reply #3 on: September 03, 1999, 04:11:00 AM »
Is the lack of response an indication of the index of fatuousness of the question??

Probably: my interest is piqued by the front end effects rather than the chemical realities.

Seems to me that it should not be too hard to pry off the oh from the ring: and a tackhammer and a methyl group, or maybe paste to stick on??

Ok i guess it can't be used.  But I thought somebody would tell me so instead of letting me rot on the end of this forsaken thread.

Oh well: I guess I'll just have to take a course in organic chemistry. shit!


And I DID TOO use the thearch engine!!


  • Guest
fatuousness personified
« Reply #4 on: December 10, 2002, 02:25:00 AM »
I was searching for why it was that "bitter orange", synephrine, could not be used for furtherance of devious ends, and in my first search, could find nothing, and posted yet another fatuous question in the "Chemistry" board about the subject.

That question will be gone by time you read this.  Over 3 years later and still I'm fatuous?? Oh well. ":<(


Per Rhode:
Posted by:  Rhodium (Chief Bee)
Posted on:  11-07-01 01:55
Post No:  233969

Dwarfer: Synephrine has a para-hydroxy group on the ring (which is not easy to remove), and it also lacks an alpha-methyl group, making the reduction product an N-methylphenetylamine, and not an amphetamine. 


What a surprise it is to me to still be asking old questions of myself.  Now I'm going in my own spirals??

Thanks for
The Hive..