Author Topic: Biosynth: Homebrewing Ephedrine  (Read 19396 times)

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encopo

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #20 on: October 14, 2001, 12:41:00 AM »
So ya's all want some Candida Utilis, ey?
There's pretty much three ways of getting it:
1. By accident.
2. From a culture collection - fork out $100
   and get the third degree - "now ma'am, why did
   you want to buy this sealed culture container?"
   You should see the license agreement you have to
   sign.
3. Go to a health store / pet store / big supermarket and
ask for Torula Yeast. After much searching around for this
damned strain of yeast, I found it.

Candida utilis (formerly Torulopsis utilis) is the yeast known as Torula Yeast. This yeast is also important in industry because it can utilize the pentose sugars from processed wood pulp used in making paper.

Gee, ya don't say?  


Don't mind me. I'm mentally ill.

PolytheneSam

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #21 on: October 14, 2001, 01:29:00 AM »
See US patent 2061136 for some other ways (other than MeNH2 and Al/Hg) of aminating L-PAC and 3,4- substituted L-PACs.

http://www.geocities.com/dritte123/PSPF.html

encopo

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #22 on: October 15, 2001, 02:43:00 AM »
SWIM's choice of action would be to aminate with
methylamine, then reduce with either palladium or
Urushibara Nickel (NiCl2 and Al).

A thought on the reductive amination of L-PAC:
the product of this is l-ephedrine, correct? If this
is so, and catalytic hydrogenation is applied (in leiu
of NaBH4 or LiAlH4), then shouldn't this l-ephedrine
be further reduced to d-methamphetamine at the same
time? (naturally, extra time/hydrogen would be given
to ensure complete reduction.

I assume that since methamphetamine has no more oxygen to
reduce, that there is no risk of over-reducing with this
method?

I am particularly interested in the above procedure, and
would love to hear some more from the author.

In wishing to simplify this procedure a bit more, mainly
for the sake of those who do not have vacumn distillation
apparatus, but also to reduce time and effort in create
large quantities, I am currently looking into different
ways of extracting the L-PAC from the fermentation mixture
that does not require the above-mentioned apparatus.
Perhaps a clever adaptation of selective solubility may
be in order? I'll check the library later, but if anybody
has solubility data regarding L-PAC, It would be very
welcome.
But then again, a fermentation is rather organic (gee ya
don't say), and much speculation could be made as to what
this mixture actually contains (anyone care for trying to
read a GC/MS?).

I'm sure people don't want to be snorting Torula yeast up
their nose - but then again, it is a diet suppliment, is
it no?


Tired but still working as always,

Encopo.

Don't mind me. I'm mentally ill.

dickdastardly

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #23 on: October 18, 2001, 09:09:00 PM »
Kudos to you for putting this info out there jacked. But I only have one last question left how do you perform a simple reductive amination. You see I'm a newbee and would like to get a simpler version of what I've seen posted thanks
_________________________________________________________

Knowlege is power

encopo

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #24 on: October 19, 2001, 02:36:00 AM »
Okie dokie, here's how it is.
Reductive Amination:
Well the "reductive" bit refers to reducing. Reducing is
synonymous with "hydrogenation". Let's say you have a
compound like the following:
# double bond
/ - \ single bond
O oxygen atom
C carbon atom
H hydrogen atom

     O
     #
 H   C   H
  \ / \ /
 H-C   C-H
   |   |
 H-C   C-H
  / \ / \
 H   C   H
    / \
   H   H

Pardon the ascii art. This is cyclohexanone (keto form).
If we REDUCE this (HYDROGENATION) using catalytic
hydrogenation (that just means reducing with hydrogen and
a catalyst - something that speeds up the reaction, but
doesn't become part of the reaction products), we
will get:

     OH
     |
 H   C   H
  \ / \ /
 H-C   C-H
   |   |
 H-C   C-H
  / \ / \
 H   C   H
    / \
   H   H

cyclohexanol.
Can you see how the hydrogen has "attached" itself to the
oxygen atom, by breaking one of the bonds that it had with
the carbon atom? If we continue to reduce we get:

   H   H
    \ /
 H   C   H
  \ / \ /            H 
 H-C   C-H          /
   |   |       +   O
 H-C   C-H          \
  / \ / \            H 
 H   C   H
    / \
   H   H

cyclohexane
Can you see how further reducing(hydrogenation) has fully
removed the Oxygen atom from the compound? Now it has
bonded with another hydrogen atom, and no-longer has a
bond to the carbon atom, so it drops off as water (H2O).
Now the carbon is 2 bonds too short, and bonds with 2 more
hydrogens to "fill itself up".

This is how reducing works. If you look at ephedrine, you'll
see that it has an alpha-hydroxy group (another name for
an OH). If you reduce ephedrine, this O bonds with another
H atom and drops off as H2O. Then more H's come along to
"fill up the space", and we get methamphetamine (a powerful
and dangerous stimulant, a controlled substance in many
countries).

So now you know what REDUCING is. But you want to know what
reductive amination means?
Well, to AMINATE something refers to reacting a compound
with ammonia (NH3), or an ammonia-containing compound, such
as methylamine (NH2CH3) to produce an imine (never mind
what that means). Reductive amination is the action of:
1. reacting a compound with an ammonia-containing compound.
2. reducing the formed imine

Thus, when we reductively aminate safrole, we add NH2CH3,
and then we hydrogenate it (reduce it), to give us
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (pay honey).

If we're making honey from bromosafrole, we don't need to
reduce it, we just aminate it with ammonia (NH3). This is
why the bromosafrole method is popular with some people, as
it can be sealed up inside a container and sat for several
days (until it finished aminating), or put into a pipe-bomb
and heated to 130'C in hot oil for 2 hours (this aminates
faster).

In turning L-PAC into l-ephedrine, one could aminate with
methylamine in the pipe-bomb, and then reduce it with
sodium borohydride (NaBH4), or aluminum amalgam (Al/Hg),
catalytic hydrogenation with raney nickel, or possibly
even with an urushibara catalyst such as created from
nickel chloride (NiCl2) and aluminum. Many other ways
exist to reduce this formed imine. If one had the glassware,
the pipe-bomb would be replaced with a reflux condenser
and a round-bottomed flask, and the mixture of methylamine
in methanol and the L-PAC would be refluxed for the
necessary amount of time.
Many reductive aminations reduce and aminate at the same
time, such as the popular Al/Hg method (not actually the
Al/Hg method, but an extension a bee has made to it that
aminates and reduces at the same time).

So I hope that explains reductive amination. For more info,
visit Rhodium's site at

https://www.rhodium.ws


and look at some of the info on different methods (of
interest to you might be the bromosafrole/halosafrole route
that uses the pipe-bomb for aminating. However, this
reaction aminates with ammonia, not methylamine as is
required for reductively aminating L-PAC).

Hope I could sort some things out for you.
And now I need a big dump (darned coffee).

Sphincterally yours,
     Encopo.


Don't mind me. I'm mentally ill.

dickdastardly

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #25 on: October 19, 2001, 05:08:00 PM »
aha that was just the info that is going to be saving me some money dag nabbit. You my freind encopo are a lifesaver. I just read a post on microwave hydrogenation. Would you reccomend this method. No more stupid pills for me.------------------------------------------------------------->Knowlege is power

malvaxman

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #26 on: October 19, 2001, 05:39:00 PM »
What about reducing the imine with elektricity, is´nt that a way to go?
I still dont understand how one could sepate out l-pac out of the soup with acetone.
Is normal yeast for baking bread possible to use? :P

dickdastardly

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #27 on: October 19, 2001, 05:50:00 PM »
IN the halosafrole amination should I put the 1 mole of the L-PAC instead of the methylamine in the reaction to produce ephedrine

encopo

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #28 on: October 19, 2001, 09:45:00 PM »
oooh, nononononono. That would have dire consqeuences.
Well, not dire, but not what you want. And wasteful
(two nice precursors down the drain).
I'm not sure what you want to do, but:
* If you want to use the halosafrole method to make
a halosafrole (such as bromosafrole), and then reductively
aminate it, then you should aminate it with AMMONIA, as
outlined nicely in the halosafrole/bromosafrole docs.
* If you want to make the L-PAC into ephedrine, then
you want to reductively aminate with methylamine, and
your choice of reducing procedure. A procedure that used
the pipe bomb FROM the halosafrole procedure to be able
to aminate the L-PAC with methylamine (NOT ammonia) in the
proper methanol solution, would aminate nicely, and then
you could procede to reduce.

As for extracting L-PAC with acetone, I'll be looking up
on the solubility of L-PAC in various solvents. Then I
will let you all in on the info. If someone can suggest
a better method than selective solubility, I'd be glad to
hear it (no, not distilling - many bees don't have/can't
afford the glassware).

And yes, I believe that a catalytic hydrogenation of some
description would be best for reducing the formed imine
(using electrolytically produced hydrogen, or if using
Urushibara, perhaps the nascent hydrogen generation from
aluminum would be sufficient (although I doubt it).).


Don't mind me. I'm mentally ill.

dickdastardly

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #29 on: October 20, 2001, 06:24:00 AM »
I was just reminiscing on my days of youth in my physical science class and remembered a procedure in which a large flashlight battery was used to seperate hydrogen and oxygen and as I remember it it produced hydrogen quite well. Hell the teacher even lit the test tube full of hydrogen when he was done. Nuff to convince me man.

encopo

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #30 on: October 20, 2001, 03:26:00 PM »
In response to the use of normal baker's yeast in creating
L-PAC, I wouldn't suggest it. In just the same way that
cows are different animals to lions, you can't expect Simba
to be able to provide the solvent for your breakfast cereal,
no? Sure, SOMETHING will be created, and maybe even SOME
L-PAC will be created, but the conditions under which
baker's yeast proliferates would be different, and the end
products would not really be the ones we're after here.

On microwave hydrogenation:
Microwave hydrogenation seems to reduce reaction times when
compared to a reaction that provides hydrogen by a
dissolving metal such as aluminum, but not when compared to
using raney nickel in a parr-shaker hydrogenation setup.
Since Urushibara catalysts are far more OTC than raney
nickel, and don't have the pyrophoric properties, they would
be an easier choice for the chemical/apparatus deprived.

The use of one of the electrolytic hydrogenation device
mentioned throughout the hive (the ultrasonic refreshing
one looks VERY nice), would be good in this respect, if
a high-enough quality urushibara catalyst was prepared.
The hydrogen in this method is provided by the electrolysis
of water with an electrolyte (such as NaOH) dissolved in
it to provide H2 gas (and O2 gas), and this cuts down
on reaction time.
The use of ultrasonic refreshing acts to create the
environment at an atomic level of high-pressure and temp,
whilst being performed in an apparatus at room temp & press.
As someone said "the ultrasonic transducers literally
slam the hydrogen and ephedrine together". Of course, that
was in reference to reducing ephedrine to methamphetamine,
but a simliar principle would apply.

A note of warning though:
A method that myself and many other bees would find easy
may be more daunting and/or dangerous to an unexperienced
newbee.
The creation of Urushibara catalysts requires the
use of a carcinogenic and toxic compound - NiCl2 (nickel
chloride).

However, a chip a stray cat recently coughed up (this time
in my lounge) describes a person who has done some
experiments in creating the NiCl2 in situ. from nickel
oxide, and then directly proceeding with the creation of
an Urushibara catalyst.

I will post these findings later this week, after I have
deciphered the strange dialect that it is written in.

If this works, many newbees would be able to explore the
use of this exciting reducing agent, requiring only OTC
products, some time, and some caution.
By creating the NiCl2 in situ, one avoids cancerous tumours
forming in embarrasing places.

lymphatically bloatedly yours,
              Encopo.


Don't mind me. I'm mentally ill.

thissuks

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #31 on: November 05, 2001, 02:22:00 AM »
€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€

*****AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY*****
Nadir A  Agrawal S  King PD  Marshall JB 
Acute hepatitis associated with the use of a Chinese herbal product, ma-huang
[see comments]
In: Am J Gastroenterol (1996 Jul) 91(7):1436-8
ISSN: 0002-9270

Herbal medicines are widely perceived by the public as being healthful and
innocuous. A number of herbal medicines have now been linked with
hepatotoxicity. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with the use of
ma-huang, a herbal product derived from plants of the Ephedra species, which is
advertised as being useful for causing weight loss and enhancing energy levels.
Given the lack of reports in the literature of hepatotoxicity with ma-huang and
ephedrine, we speculate that the ma-huang product our patient took contained
some other ingredient or contaminant or was misidentified. Our report and others
in the literature, which we review, indicate that the clinician should consider
herbal medicines as a possible cause of unexplained liver injury.

Registry Numbers:
299-42-3 (Ephedrine)

€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€

*****EMBO JOURNAL*****
Malek O  Lattig K  Hiesel R  Brennicke A  Knoop V 
RNA editing in bryophytes and a molecular phylogeny of land plants.
In: EMBO J (1996 Mar 15) 15(6):1403-11
ISSN: 0261-4189

RNA editing has been observed to date in all groups of vascular plants, but not
in bryophytes. Its occurrence was therefore assumed to correlate with the
evolution of tracheophytes. To gain more insight into both the phylogeny of
early land plants and the evolution of mitochondrial RNA editing we have
investigated a number of vascular and non-vascular plant species. Contrary to
the belief that editing is absent from bryophytes, here we report mitochondrial
RNA editing in cox3 mRNA of the liverwort Pellia epiphylla, the mosses Tetraphis
pellucida and Ceratodon purpureus and the hornwort Anthroceros crispulus. RNA
editing in plants consequently predates the evolution of tracheophytes. Editing
is also found in the eusporangiate ferns Ophioglossum petiolatum and Angiopteris
palmiformis, the whisk fern Tmesipteris elongata and the gnetopsid Ephedra
gerardiana, but was not detected in Gnetum gnemon.cox3 mRNA of the lycopsid
Isoetes lacustris shows the highest frequency of RNA editing ever observed in a
plant, with 39% of all cytidine residues converted to uridines. The frequency of
RNA editing correlates with the genomic GC content rather than with the
phylogenetic position of a species. Phylogenetic trees derived from the slowly
evolving mitochondrial sequences find external support from the assessments of
classical systematics.

Registry Numbers:
EC 1.9.3.1 (Cytochrome-c Oxidase)

€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€

*****ADVANCES IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING/BIOTECHNOLOGY*****
Rogers PL  Shin HS  Wang B 
Biotransformation for L-ephedrine production.
In: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol (1997) 56:33-59
ISSN: 0724-6145

L-ephedrine is widely used in pharmaceutical preparations as a decongestant and
anti-asthmatic compound. One of the key intermediates in its production is
L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) which can be obtained either from plants (Ephedra
sp.), chemical synthesis involving resolution of a racemic mixture, or by
biotransformation of benzaldehyde using various yeasts. In the present review,
recent significant improvements in the microbial biotransformation are assessed
for both fed-batch and continuous processes using free and immobilised yeasts.
From previous fed-batch culture data, maximal levels of L-PAC of 10-12 gl-1 were
reported with yields of 55-60% theoretical based on benzaldehyde. However,
recently concentrations of more than 22 gl-1 have been obtained using a
wild-type strain of Candida utilis. This has been achieved through optimal
control of yeast metabolism (via microprocessor control of the respiratory
quotient, RQ) in order to enhance substrate pyruvate production and induce
pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity. Processes involving purified PDC have
also been evaluated and it has been demonstrated that L-PAC levels up to 28 gl-1
can be obtained with yields of 90-95% theoretical based on the benzaldehyde
added. In the review the advantages and disadvantages of the various strategies
for the microbial and enzymatic production of L-PAC are compared. In view of the
increasing interest in microbial biotransformations, L- PAC production provides
an interesting example of enhancement through on-line control of a process
involving both toxic substrate (benzaldehyde) and end-product (L-PAC, benzyl
alcohol) inhibition.

Registry Numbers:
EC 4.1.1.1 (Pyruvate Decarboxylase)
100-52-7 (benzaldehyde)
299-42-3 (Ephedrine)
67-64-1 (Acetone)
90-63-1 (1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone)



palladium foil

foxy2

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #32 on: November 06, 2001, 03:23:00 AM »
Manufacture of L-phenylacetylcarbinol with Saccharomyces and preparation of L-ephedrine therefrom.    
Horitsu, Hiroaki; Otsubo, Tetsuya.  (Alps Yakuhin Kogyo K. K., Japan; Horitsu, Hiroaki).   
Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho  (1997),     4 pp.  CODEN: JKXXAF 
JP  09234090  A2  19970909  Heisei.  
Patent  written in Japanese.

Abstract
L-Phenylacetylcarbinol (I) is manufd. from pyruvic acid (II) and PhCHO in a medium contg. C source with Saccharomyces yeast.  L-Ephedrine (III) is prepd. from I manufd. by the above method.  Bakers' yeast was precultured in a medium contg. molasses, salts, II, and vitamin B1 at 30° for 1 h.  Subsequently PhCHO was added to the culture over 1 h and the incubation was continued for 5 h to give I.  A mixt. of I, AcOBu, MeOH soln. of MeNH2, Adams Pt oxide, and MeOH was autoclaved at 3 atm H ro give III.


Method for isolation of L-ephedrine hydrochloride and sulfate salts.    
Vondracek, Miloslav; Svoboda, Ivan.  (Vyzkumny Ustav Antibiotik A Biotransformaci S.P., Czech Rep.).    Czech Rep.  (1996),     4 pp.  CODEN: CZXXED 
CZ  281218  B6  19960717  Patent  written in Czech. 

Abstract
L-Ephedrine hydrochloride and sulfate salts can be isolated from a reaction mixt. by reductive amination of D-(-)-1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-2-propanone at pH 10-13 and removing the catalyst with an org. phase, then bringing the pH to 1-6 with concd. HCl or H2SO4, with azeotropic distn. to remove 70-100% of the vol. of the water present and to release the desired salt.  

L-Ephedrine from phenylacetyl carbinol.    
Nebesky, Ferdinand; Souhrada, Josef; Jakl, Vladimir.  (Czech.).    Czech.  (1978),     3 pp.  CODEN: CZXXA9 
CS  186027  19781130  Patent  written in Czech.   

Abstract
Phenylacetylcarbinol was hydrogenated at 50-5° and H pressure 202.6 kPa over a Pt catalyst in AcOBu contg. HCl with portionwise addn. of an aq. 35-40% MeNH2 soln.  To give a mixt. of the L-(I) and DL-ephedrine, which was sepd. by crystn. to yield 88% I.HCl. 


Do Your Part To Win The War

foxy2

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #33 on: November 06, 2001, 03:29:00 AM »
This is cool, If you are up to the plant cell culture, which is much more difficult than growing yeast.

Method for producing ephedrine from large-scale Ephedra cell culture.    
Cha, Lihang; Jiao, Yuxia; Liu, Dalu; Zhu, Weixing; Zhang, Guozheng; Tang, Lianghong.  (Institute of Chemical Metallurgy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peop. Rep. China; Xinjiang Tuofeng Pharmaceutic Industry Co., Ltd.).    Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu  (2000),     13 pp.  CODEN: CNXXEV 
CN  1256316  A  20000614  Patent  written in Chinese.

Abstract
Ephedrine is produced by inoculating Ephedra cell ZHJ-25CGMCCNo.0359 in a culture, culturing at 25° for 20-50 d by solid culturing, suspension culturing, or bioreactor culturing, and drying at 60°.  The culture is prepd. by adding 0.7% agar to a soln. contg. KNO3 2.0-10.0, CuSO4 0.0001-0.001, NaH2PO4 0.3- 5.0, ZnSO4 0.001-0.01, MgSO4 0.5-3.5, (EDTA)Fe 0.1-2, Na3BO3 0.001-0.007, kinetin 0.001-0.01, (NH4)2SO4 0.5- 2.0, indoleacetic acid 0.001-0.01, CaCl2 0.5-5.0 mM, and sugar 1.0-10.0%, boiling, and sterilizing at 121° for 15 min.  The culture may also contain phenylalanine 0.1-20 mM, fungus fermn. liquor 10-50%, vitamin B 0.4-0.5 mM, and nicotinic acid 0.078 mM.    

Do Your Part To Win The War

foxy2

  • Guest
An Article in English!!!!
« Reply #34 on: November 06, 2001, 03:33:00 AM »
Ephedra species: in vitro culture, micropropagation, and the production of ephedrine and other alkaloids.    
O'dowd, N. A.; Mccauley, P. G.; Wilson, G.; Parnell, J. A. N.; Kavanagh, T. A. K.; Mcconnell, D. J.    School of Botany, Trinity College,  University of Dublin,  Dublin,  Ire.   
Biotechnol. Agric. For.  (1998),  41(Medicinal and Aromatic Plants X),  154-193. 
CODEN: BAFOEG  ISSN: 0934-943X.  Journal; General Review  written in English.    CAN 128:101114   

Abstract
A review with 102 refs. 

This could bee very interesting.

Do Your Part To Win The War

foxy2

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #35 on: November 06, 2001, 03:51:00 AM »
1-Ephedrine.    
Groeger, Detlef; Schmauder, Hans P.; Froemmel, Helmut.    Ger. (East)  (1966),     3 pp.  CODEN: GEXXA8 
DD  51651  19661125  Patent  written in German.  

Abstract
The title compd. (I) is prepd. by aerobic fermentation of a soln. of 18-25% beet molasses, 0.03-0.07% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.1-0.15% KH2PO4, 0.3-0.6% (NH4)2SO4 at pH 4.7-5.2, contg. small amts. of coenzymes, vitamin B, or whey and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, during 9 hrs.  Within 4 hrs., 4 addns. of 0.2% C6H5CHO and AcH are added.  A yield of 55-76% L-phenylacetylcarbinol is obtained which is treated by known methods to give I.


This one here looks like GOLD!!!

Factors affecting the production of L-phenylacetylcarbinol by yeast: a case study.    
Oliver A L; Anderson B N; Roddick F A   
ADVANCES IN MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY  (1999),  41 1-45. 
Ref: 112.  Journal code: 2NT.  ISSN:0065-2911.

Abstract
L-Phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) is the precursor for L-ephedrine and D-pseudoephedrine, alkaloids possessing alpha- and beta-adrenergic activity. The most commonly used method for production of L-PAC is a biological method whereby the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) decarboxylates pyruvate and then condenses the product with added benzaldehyde. The process may be undertaken by either whole cells or purified PDC. If whole cells are used, the biomass may be grown and allowed to synthesize endogenous pyruvate, or the cells may be used as a catalyst only, with both pyruvate and benzaldehyde being added. Several yeast species have been investigated with regard to L-PAC-producing potential; the most commonly used organisms are strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. It was found that initial high production rates did not necessarily result in the highest final yields. Researchers then examined ways of improving the productivity of the process. The substrate, benzaldehyde, and the product, L-PAC, as well as the by-products, were found to be toxic to the biomass. Methods examined to reduce toxicity include modification of benzaldehyde dosing regimes, immobilization of biomass or purified enzymes, modification of benzaldehyde solubility and the use of two-phase reaction systems. Various means of modifying metabolism to enhance enzyme activity, relevant metabolic pathways and yield have been examined. Methods investigated include the use of respiratory quotient to influence pyruvate production and induce fermentative activity, reduced aeration to increase PDC activity, and carbohydrate feeding to modify glycolytic enzyme activity. The effect of temperature on L-PAC yield has been examined to identify conditions which provide the optimal balance between L-PAC and benzyl alcohol production, and L-PAC inactivation. However, relatively little work has been undertaken on the effect of medium composition on L-PAC yield. 

Do Your Part To Win The War

thissuks

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #36 on: November 06, 2001, 06:05:00 AM »
where did you find all that? I might be wrong but dont we want D-ephedrine

palladium foil

TrickEMethod

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #37 on: November 06, 2001, 07:08:00 AM »
Here's two more possibilities for Benz from Toluene that I have found.

   1)  Photooxidation of Toluene in Cation-Exchange Zeolites

   2)  Oxygenation of Hydrocarbons using Nanostructured TiO2 as a Photocatalyst

Now number one is interesting, here is the puchline...

Toluene photooxidation was investigated in BaX and BaY (zeolites - BIG MAGIC).  Toluene was introduced into the infrared cell at a pressure of approximately 10 torr and alllowed to equilibrate for one hour.  Gas-phase toluene was subsiquently pumped out leaving strongly absorbed toluene.  Quantitative  measures of the toluene absorption indicated that the loading was approximately 2 toluene molecules per supercage.   Molecular oxygen was then added to the infrared cell...  sample was irradiated with broadband for 1hr...   The end result is that BaY zeolite produced a 87% yeald then was nearly fully recycled.

Now BaY Zeolite can only be gotten from the petuitary of the invitro fetus of an extinct species of tree lizards, but otherwise the method is perfect.

The second synth is more viable however, needing only Tol, O2 (atm probably would work with patience) and TiO2 which is Titanium white used as a paint thickener and coloring...

Details were irritatingly thin, but Tol was oxidized in the presence of a TiO2 catalyst produced via flame deposition on a unnamed substrate.  Two hours with bubbled O2 (rate not provided) under UV radiation from a Hg lamp with nearly theoretic conversion and selectivity.

Too tired to retype the reference tonight, but if people are interested I might tomorrow.


Let me know what you think, butI intend to try a TiO2 held in suspension by bubbling O2 thru Toluene.  I figure recycle the O2 with a pump to really churn things up and hit it hard with UV from all sides via a reflector.  Of course I just realized that: Toluene + O2 + Heat might lead to an exothermic side reactions involving the local authorities via kitchen rearangement which would reduce the selectivity of the outcome.  Maybe I'll wait to hear from wiser bee's, and maybe some sleep,  before I dream such things...

TrickE

And on the eight day, God created Meth...
... and hasn't done much of anything usefull since!

foxy2

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #38 on: November 06, 2001, 06:18:00 PM »
suk
No you want L-ephedrine.

I have a good book here
"Principles of Brewing Science" by George Fix
It has some pretty good basic info on all the chemical transformations in yeast.  Mine is the old edition, I heard the new one was easier to understand, that could mean that he left out many good details but maybee he didn't.

Ok now to the goods.
Mr Fix says that Mg++ is a cofactor for the pyruvic acid decarboxylase enzyme.  So I would say that you definately want/need some Magnesium in your media.  Use epsom salt (MgSO4) in the amount recommended in one of the above media compositions.

Do Your Part To Win The War

dickdastardly

  • Guest
Re: Biosynth (homebrewing E)
« Reply #39 on: November 10, 2001, 07:49:00 AM »
Well I went to the grocery store to find me some Torula Yeast. No luck so's I decided to look for it on the net and guess what I found Ya'll

http://www.ohly.de/hutch.htm

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