Author Topic: Frigorific Mixtures  (Read 1500 times)

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ning

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Frigorific Mixtures
« on: April 19, 2004, 09:18:00 AM »
From a 1800s chemistry book. Veeery interesting.


Table I--Consisting of Frigorific Mixtures, composed of Ice, with Chemical Salts and Acids.

                        Parts   Thermometer Sinks   Degree of Cold

Snow or pounded ice      2        to -5 F           
Muriate of soda          1

Snow or pounded ice      5        to -12 F
Muriate of soda          2
Muriate of ammonia       1

Snow or pounded ice     24        to -18 F
Muriate of soda         10
Muriate of ammonia       5
Nitrate of potash        5

Snow or pounded ice     12        to -25 F
Muriate of soda          5
Nitrate of ammonia       5

Snow or pounded ice      3        +32 to -23 F       -55 F
Diluted sulfuric acid(*) 2

Snow or pounded ice      8        +32 to -27 F       -59 F
Muriatic acid (conc.)    5

Snow or pounded ice      4        +32 to -30 F       -62 F
Conc. nitrous acid       4

Snow or pounded ice      4        +32 to -40 F       -72 F
Muriate of lime          5

Snow or pounded ice      2        +32 to -50 F       -82 F
Cryst. muriate of lime   3

Snow or pounded ice      3        +32 to -51 F       -83 F
Potash                   4


(*) Strong acid 2 parts; water or snow 1 part, by weight.

Table II--Consisting of Frigorific Mixtures, having the power of generating or creating Cold, without the aid of Ice, sufficient for all useful and philosophical purposes, in any part of the world at any season.



                        Parts   Thermometer Sinks   Degree of Cold

Muriate of ammonia       5        +50 to +10 F       -40 F
Nitrate of potash        5
Water                   16

Muriate of ammonia       5        +50 to +4 F        -46 F
Nitrate of potash        5
Sulphate of soda         8     
Water                   16

Nitrate of ammonia       1        +50 to +4 F        -46 F
Water                    1

Nitrate of ammonia       1        +50 to -7 F        -57 F
Carbonate of soda        1
Water                    1

Sulphate of soda         3        +50 to -3 F        -53 F
Diluted nitrous acid(*)  2

Sulphate of soda         6        +50 to -10 F       -60 F
Muriate of ammonia       4
Nitrate of potash        2
Diluted nitrous acid(*)  4

Sulphate of soda         6        +50 to -14 F       -64 F
Nitrate of ammonia       5
Diluted nitrous acid(*)  4

Phosphate of soda        9        +50 to -12 F       -62 F
Diluted nitrous acid(*)  4

Phosphate of soda        9        +50 to -21 F       -71 F
Nitrate of ammonia       6
Diluted nitrous acid(*)  4

Sulphate of soda         8        +50 to 0 F         -50 F
Muriatic acid            5

Sulphate of soda         5        +50 to 3 F         -47 F
Diluted sulphuric acid(+)4
 


(*) Fuming nitrous acid, 2 parts; water 1 part, by weight.
(+) Equal weights of strong acid and water

N.B.--If the materials are mixed at a warmer temperature than that expressed in the table, the effect will be proportionately greater; thus, if the most powerful of these mixtures be made when the air is +85 F, it will sink the thermometer to + 2 F.


Table III--Consisting of Frigorific Mixtures selected from the foregoing tables and combined so as to increase or extend Cold to the extremest degrees.


                        Parts   Thermometer Sinks   Degree of Cold

Phosphate of soda        5          0 to -34 F       -34 F
Nitrate of ammonia       3      
Diluted nitrous acid     4

Phosphate of soda        3        -34 to -50 F       -16 F
Nitrate of ammonia       2      
Diluted mixed acids      4

Snow or pounded ice      3          0 to -46 F       -46 F
Diluted nitrous acid     2

Snow or pounded ice      8        -10 to -56 F       -46 F
Diluted sulphuric acid   3
Diluted nitrous acid     3

Snow or pounded ice      1        -20 to -60 F       -40 F
Diluted sulphuric acid   1

Snow or pounded ice      3         20 to -48 F       -68 F
Muriate of lime          4

Snow or pounded ice      3         10 to -54 F       -64 F
Muriate of lime          4

Snow or pounded ice      2        -15 to -68 F        53 F
Muriate of lime          3

Snow or pounded ice      1          0 to -66 F       -66 F
Cryst. muriate of lime   2

Snow or pounded ice      1        -40 to -73 F       -33 F
Cryst. muriate of lime   3

Snow or pounded ice      8        -68 to -91 F       -23 F
Diluted sulphuric acid   10



Remarks: The above artificial processes for the production of cold are more effective when the ingredients are first cooled by immersion in other freezing mixtures. In this way Mr. Walker succeeded in producing a cold equal to 100 F below the zero of Fahrenheit, or 132 F below the freezing point of water.

---------------------------------------------------------

It looks to ning like it would bee possible to liquify ammonia without dry ice, by use of a 2-stage "frigorific mixture", according to these directions.

If it was CaCl2 ("Muriate of lime") you were using, it would even bee possible to reuse it by letting the spent mixture dry in the sun, then baking all the water off again.




abolt

  • Guest
Some Useful Laboratory Cooling Mixtures ...
« Reply #1 on: April 21, 2004, 05:13:00 AM »
Some Useful Laboratory Cooling Mixtures

Mixture   Mixture              temperature (Centigrade)

p-Xylene/Liquid nitrogen      13
p-Dioxane/Liquid nitrogen      12
Cyclohexane/Liquid nitrogen       6
Benzene/Liquid nitrogen          5
Formamide/Liquid nitrogen       2
Aniline/Liquid nitrogen         -6
Cycloheptane/Liquid nitrogen      -12
Benzonitrile/Liquid nitrogen      -13
Ethylene glycol/Dry ice         -15
o-Dichlorobenzene/Liquid nitrogen   -18
Tetrachloroetane/Liquid nitrogen   -22
Carbon tetrachloride/Liquid nitrogen   -23
Carbon tetrachloride/Dry ice      -23
m-Dichlorobenzene/Liquid nitrogen   -25
Nitromethane/Liquid nitrogen      -29
o-Xylene/Liquid nitrogen      -29
Bromobenzene/Liquid nitrogen      -30
Iodobenzene/Liquid nitrogen      -31
Thiophene/Liquid nitrogen      -38
3-Heptanone/Dry ice         -38
Acetonitrile/Liquid nitrogen      -41
Pyridine/Liquid nitrogen      -42
Acetonenitrile/Dry ice         -42
Chlorobenzene/Liquid nitrogen      -45
Cylcohexanone/Dry ice         -46
m-Xylene/Liquid nitrogen      -47
n-Butyl amine/Liquid nitrogen      -50
Diethyl carbitol/Dry ice      -52
n-Octane/Liquid nitrogen      -56
Chloroform/Liquid nitrogen      -63
Methyl iodide/Liquid nitrogen      -66
Carbitol acetate/Dry ice      -67
t-Butyl amine/Liquid nitrogen      -68
Ethanol/Dry ice            -72
Trichloroethylene/Liquid nitrogen   -73
Chloroform/Dry ice         -77
Butyl acetate/Liquid nitrogen      -77
Acetone/Dry ice            -78
Isopropanol/Dry ice         -78
Isoamyl acetate/Liquid nitrogen      -79
Acylonitrile/Liquid nitrogen      -82
Sulfur dioxide/Dry ice         -82
Ethyl acetate//Liquid nitrogen      -84
Ethyl methyl ketone/Liquid nitrogen   -86
Acrolein/Liquid nitrogen      -88
Nitroethane/Liquid nitrogen      -90
Heptane/Liquid nitrogen         -91
Cyclopentane/Liquid nitrogen      -93
Hexane/Liquid nitrogen         -94
Toluene/Liquid nitrogen         -95
Methanol/Liquid nitrogen      -98
Diethyl ether/Dry ice         -100
n-Propyl iodide/Liquid nitrogen      -101
n-Butyl iodide/Liquid nitrogen      -103
Cyclohexane/Liquid nitrogen      -104
Isooctane/Liquid nitrogen      -107
Ethyl iodide/Liquid nitrogen      -109
Carbon disulfide/Liquid nitrogen   -110
Butyl bromide/Liquid nitrogen      -112
Ethyl bromide/Liquid nitrogen      -119
Acetaldehyde/Liquid nitrogen      -124
Methyl cyclohexane/Liquid nitrogen   -126
n-Pentane/Liquid nitrogen      -131
1,5-Hexadiene/Liquid nitrogen      -141
Isopentane/Liquid nitrogen      -160


ning

  • Guest
It might bee nicer
« Reply #2 on: April 21, 2004, 08:05:00 PM »
if you formatted that table....


Mr_Bronson

  • Guest
Liquify Ammonia
« Reply #3 on: April 22, 2004, 01:36:00 AM »
You might be able to generate a temperature below the boiling point of NH3, but you won't have enough specific heat to liquify much. Going from gas to liquid produces a lot of heat and before you know it, the freezing mixture will be above the BP of NH3.

The most practical way is still dry-ice and acetone. You use the sublimation of dry-ice to absorb the heat as the NH3 liquifies.

XrLeap

  • Guest
Hi, Sorry for the newbee question....
« Reply #4 on: October 23, 2004, 09:51:00 AM »