Author Topic: Professional Chemistry Links  (Read 12091 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

java

  • Guest
Computer generated chemistry reactions...
« Reply #60 on: July 14, 2003, 05:05:00 PM »
A visual archive of computer generated animations of reactions like,pinacol rearrangement, enols and more....

http://www.colby.edu/chemistry/OChem/demoindex.html#table



see also for more resources,

http://www.colby.edu/chemistry/resources.html



Edit: spelling corrected....


Rhodium

  • Guest
A visual archive of computer generated ...
« Reply #61 on: July 14, 2003, 06:29:00 PM »
A visual archive of computer generated animations of reactions like pinnacle .....and more

I assume you are referring to the Pinacol Rearrangement, right? Watch out with that spelling, it makes a lot of difference in chemistry sometimes.

java

  • Guest
Advanced Chemistry lab with procedures
« Reply #62 on: July 17, 2003, 06:06:00 AM »
Advanced Organic Lab Experiments

 Technique 1. Identification Of Unknown Compounds
 Technique 2. Flash Chromatography.
 Technique 3. Advanced Chemical Information Technology
 Technique 4. Preparative Vacuum Sublimation
 Technique 5. Advanced Molecular Modelling
 Technique 6. Reactions In Liquid Ammonia
 Technique 7. Vacuum Line Technique And Anaerobic Handling
 Technique 8. Reaction In A Pressure Bottle
 Technique 9. Advanced NMR Spectroscopy And 3D Interpretation
 Technique 11. Reactions Of Octal-2-Ones
 Technique 12. Catalytic Hydrogenation At Atmospheric Pressure
 Technique 15. Reactions In Liquid Ammonia
 Technique 16. Reductions With Lithium Aluminium Hydride
 Technique 18. Ozonolysis Of An Olefin
 Technique 19. Photochemistry Of Santonin
 Technique 20. Multi-Stage Syntheses

http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/GIC/organic_lab.html




java

  • Guest
The Organic Laboratory
« Reply #63 on: July 17, 2003, 06:13:00 AM »
Distribution Coefficients.
Extraction.
Melting Points.
Methylcyclohexenes.
Catalytic Hydrogenation.
Grignard Reactions.
Beilstein Test
Preparation of Butyl Bromide.
Oxidative Coupling of an Alkyne.



http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/organic_lab/




java

  • Guest
Advanced level chemistry
« Reply #64 on: July 17, 2003, 06:40:00 AM »
Advanced Level Chemistry

Topic 1 Atomic Structure syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 2 Quantitative chemistry syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 3 Structure and Bonding syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 4 Oxidation and reduction and the transition elements syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 5 Periodic Table syllabus   summary    checklist
Module 1 exam questions        June 95          June 96
Module 1 answers             June 95      June 96
 

Module 2 (CH2) - 6082

Topic 6 Energetics I syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 7 Chemical equilibrium syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 8 Acid/base equilibria syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 9 Chemical kinetics syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 10 Nomenclature of organic chemistry syllabus   summary    checklist
Topic 11 Isomerism syllabus   summary    checklist
Topic 12 Reaction mechanisms syllabus  summary    checklist     multimedia
Topic 13 Characteristic tests for organic compounds   syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 14 Important applications   syllabus   summary    checklist
Topic 15 Bonding in organic compounds   syllabus        summary         checklist
Module 2 exam questions         Jun 98        Jan 99     June 99

Module 3 (CH3) - 6083

Topic 16 Energetics II   syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 17 Redox equilibria including quantitative aspects  syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 18 Gaseous and heterogeneous equilibria   syllabus   summary    checklist
Topic 19 Groups 1 and 2   syllabus  summary    checklist
Topic 20 The chlor-alkali industry   syllabus   summary    checklist
Topic 21 Groups 3 and 4   syllabus   summary    checklist
Topic 22 Group 7   syllabus  summary    checklist
Module 3 exam questions      Jan 98          June98
Module 3 answers                 Jan98

Module 4 (CH4) - 6084

Topic 23 Chemistry of organic compounds   syllabus   summary        checklist        multimedia
Topic 24 Organic synthesis   syllabus   summary            checklist
Topic 25 Organic analysis   syllabus   summary              checklist
Topic 26 Phase equilibria   syllabus   summary
Module 4 exam questions      Jan 98        June 98
Synoptic Paper (CH6) -6086

Practical Test (CH8) - 6088

school science uk 


http://www.wbateman.demon.co.uk/Adv-Chem.htm




midway

  • Guest
government household chemical list
« Reply #65 on: July 22, 2003, 01:45:00 AM »

http://hpd.nlm.nih.gov



this is a nice site, search household products by type and name for their contents.

also, type in any given chemical and find a list of products containing it, with percentage and other information.

Very useful resourse for bees that have to, or choose go over-the-counter.


http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/index.search


The above link is a chemfinder style search engine. its not as good, but it might help you out when chemfinder goes down, as it seems to do from time to time.

http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Search_Chemicals.jsp


This one is limited to pesticides.

sorry for any reposts.

-midway

java

  • Guest
Index of Organic Chemistry Educational Material
« Reply #66 on: July 24, 2003, 04:06:00 PM »

http://people.ouc.bc.ca/woodcock/



Note: Not sure if previously listed, I found it to be a good resource link.


Rhodium

  • Guest
French Analysis of Illicit Drugs with refs
« Reply #67 on: August 06, 2003, 04:17:00 AM »

http://www.ofdt.fr/BDD/sintes/notes.htm



OFDT - SINTES
Observatorie Francais des Drogues et des Toxicomanies - Système d'Identification National des Toxiques et Substances

Great French site where illicit drug data are collected, such as how much of what drug was encountered where, how much of what drug a certain tablet contains, and lots of references for the toxicology and pharmacology of many illicit drugs.

java

  • Guest
General O=CH chemistry directory
« Reply #68 on: August 10, 2003, 07:53:00 PM »

wirewound

  • Guest
Chemical Hazards & Safety Links
« Reply #69 on: September 07, 2003, 04:24:00 PM »
Chemical Hazards    UK
www.chcs.org.uk
Chemical Hazards Communications Society is a very active group which holds meetings, shares information and produces a Newsletter.  The site is growing and has many useful links, including a list of relevant European Union Directives.

Chemical hazards: Chemical Incidents Hotline              UK
www.natfocus.uwic.ac.uk
Chemical Incidents Hotline  is based at the University of Wales in Cardiff it aims to provide a 24 hour, 365 day a year service to receive notification of incidents in the UK and to provide a contact point for Government. This site also aims to alert officials at the Departments of Health for England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales to public health aspects of chemical incidents and to provide information on such incidents.

Chemical safety     BELGIUM
www.cefic.be
European Chemical Industry Council covers activities, long-range research, useful links, products, press information, diary of events, health, safety and environment information.

Chemical safety    BELGIUM
www.ecetoc.org
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals was established in 1978 as a scientific non-commercial association by 50 top companies with interests in the manufacturer and use of chemicals. ECETOC acts as an independent, peer-reviewed technical resource to all concerned with identification of research needs and provision of scientific rational for the assessment of the health effects and environment impact. Partner to organisations such as the World Health Organisation - WHO, the International Programme on Chemical Safety-IPCS, and the European Commission. ECETOC works closely with its partners to establish a scientific foundation for the development of legislation in chemicals.

Chemical safety               ITALY

http://edexim.ei.jrc.it


EDEXIM ONLINE-INFO gives information about exports and imports of certain dangerous chemicals. These are chemicals subject to notification according to European Council Regulation EEC 2455/92.  The data includes information on Banned Or Severely Restricted BOSR substances, classification and labelling, including risk and safety phrases: chemicals subject to Prior Informed Consent PIC according to the UNEP/FAO PIC procedure, as well as a list of Designated National Authorities involved.

Chemical safety            LUXEMBOURG

http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/chemicals/competiv/risc/db_en.htm


The Chemical Information Network links to members APME, CEFIC, CEPE, EFMA, FEICA.

Chemical safety     SWITZERLAND
www.who.int/ifcs
Intergovernmental Forum on  Chemical Safety IFCS is concerned with chemical safety issues and has information about national focal points, meetings including regional meetings. It also has links to other worldwide organisations in industry and non governmental organisations.

Chemical safety      SWITZERLAND
www.who.int/ipcs
International Programme on Chemical Safety programme of three co-operating organisations, UNEP, ILO and WHO implementing activities relating to chemical safety. The main role of International Programme on Chemical Safety is to establish the scientific basis for the safe use of chemicals and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety. Links to other information.

Chemical safety    SWITZERLAND
www.who.int/iomc
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals consists of a number of major organisations such as the UNEP, FAI, ILO, WHO, UNIDO, UNITAR and OECD committed to improving knowledge about chemicals. There are also links to all the major organisations sites and information.

Chemical safety        SWITZERLAND

http://irptc.unep.ch/


United Nations Environment Chemicals and the Global Environmental Epidemiology Network Projects includes the Pollutant Release and Transfer register PRTR, Persistent Organic Pollutants POPS and International Register on Biosafety IRB amongst other data. Useful site.

Chemical Safety       UK
www.cia.org.uk
The Chemical Industries Association website contains new, information, details of the CIA, membership details, responsible care and also information about the chemical industry

Chemical Safety         UK
www.sourcerer.co.uk
Sourcerer is the gateway to the Chemical Industry of the United Kingdom. Sourcerer will guide you quickly to the chemical products and services available from the UK and to the companies who can supply what you a wealth of information including a Chemical Directory of companies, products, services, Code of Conduct, The Sourcerer Concise Chemical Index which lists over 100,000 chemicals and services. News and links to affiliated trade associations.

Chemical safety     UK
www.chemind.org
Chemistry and Industry Magazine linked with the Society of Chemistry and Industry.  Gives details of new editions and also other useful chemical information.

Chemical safety           UK
www.eevl.ac.uk/engineering/
Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library provides an excellent gateway to quality chemical and chemical engineering information websites and links.

Chemical safety       UK
www.chemsoc.org
Royal Society of Chemistry, details of journals, books, and many services.

Chemical safety     UK
www.liv.ac.uk/Chemistry/Links/links.html
University of Liverpool Chemical Information Service contains extensive information, material safety datasheets MSDS, journals, and many links to other useful chemical sources of information. Provides an excellent gateway to quality environmental engineering information.

Chemical safety   UK
www.joulepcl.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/
University of Oxford Material Safety Datasheets MSDS Service extensive site covering carcinogens, Chemical Abstracts Service CAS numbers, flash points low, highly toxic compounds, Hazard Codes UN, gases, glove materials, maximum exposure limits, foreign languages databases, MSDS, peroxides, risk and safety phrases, shock sensitive materials, chemical synonyms, teratogens, toxicity abbreviations.

Chemical safety             UK
www.shef.ac.uk/~chem
University of Sheffield extensive chemical source containing CHEMDEX, a well organised list of chemistry sites.

Chemical safety         USA

http://membership.acs.org/c/chas/


Aims of this multi-disciplined group is to promote chemical health and safety in the workplace and in society.  Has information n the properties of chemicals which affect health and safety directly or through the environment, and promotes exchange of such information.

Chemical safety           USA
www.chemcenter.org
American Chemical Society service designed to bring together the resources of both the American Chemical Society and Chemical Abstracts Services.

Chemical safety                     USA
www.jtbaker.com
J T Baker organisation has a range of chemical information, material safety data sheets MSDS, news, events, technical advice and guidance

Chemical safety       USA

http://info.cas.org


Chemical Abstracts Service site gives details of products, publications and services.

Chemical safety           USA
www.chemspy.com
Chemspy offers chemical and chemistry information databases, dictionaries, journals, latest news and selected links

Chemical safety        USA
www.chemsafety.gov
Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board is dedicated to industrial chemical safety and protecting workers, the public and the environment. Contains News, reports, investigations, CSB five-year strategic plan, conferences and meetings, details of the Chemical Incident Reports Centre and links to other chemical sites.

Chemical safety               USA
www.ilpi.com/msds/index.chtm
Material Safety Datasheets information, includes  'What is a MSDS', glossary, software, links to other governmental agencies and useful sites.

Chemical safety       USA
www.chemweb.com
Chemical information from MDL covers many services including discussion groups, journals etc.

Chemical safety      USA
www.cdc.gov/niosh/chemsfpg.html
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Chemical Collection contains an extensive collection of prior published documents which acts as a convenient pointer to various materials available on the NIOSH website. These include e.g. Alerts, Criteria Documents, Current Intelligence Bulletins, Hazard Reviews, International Chemical Safety Cards and many other links.

Chemical safety   USA

http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry


National Institute of Standards and Technology's Chemistry web book contains formula, partial formula, Chemical Abstract Service CAS numbers and National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Databases.

Chemical safety       USA
www.schs.org
Society for Chemical Hazard Communication site contains news, meetings, contacts for the exchange of information.

Chemical safety              USA

http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd


Searchable database of 1500 chemicals including hazard information, toxicology and further information.

Chemical safety            USA
www.indiana.edu:80/~cheminfo
University of Indiana Chemistry Resources worldwide listed - regularly updated

Chemical safety        USA
www.chem.ucla.edu/chempointers.html
University of California chemical information.

Chemical safety          USA

http://psyche.uthct.edu/ous/BiolRes.html


University of Texas Department of Occupational Environment Medicine and Department of Occupational Health web pages cover their latest programs and activities including recycling, Material safety datasheets MSDS, chemical fact sheets, and The Institutional Biosafety Committee Handbook.

Chemical safety           USA
www.siri.org/msds
Vermont Safety Information Resources and Materials Safety Datasheets on the Internet.    

Chemicals: Internet guide    SWITZERLAND
www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/iguide/coverpg.html
United Nations Environment Programme Internet Guide finding information on chemicals.


java

  • Guest
Chemistry resources
« Reply #70 on: September 08, 2003, 04:29:00 AM »

lugh

  • Guest
Spectroscopy Online
« Reply #71 on: September 24, 2003, 03:33:00 AM »
This URL should bee very helpful

http://www.chem.uni-potsdam.de/tools/



:)  ;D  :)

Bee sure to use an anonymizing proxy for serious inquiries, they greet you with your computer host name  ;)


Rhodium

  • Guest
Journal Abbreviation Resources
« Reply #72 on: September 29, 2003, 11:51:00 PM »

Journal Abbreviation Resources

(http://www.lib.purdue.edu/life/j-abbrev.html)

Listed here are resources that will help you decipher the full title of a journal, when you only have the abbreviation for the journal.

java

  • Guest
Another concise chemical info source
« Reply #73 on: October 19, 2003, 02:45:00 AM »

http://www.inchem.org/



There is plenty of source here to try this sub page.......java

http://www.inchem.org/pages/icsc.html




java

  • Guest
Concise OH reaction rates....
« Reply #74 on: October 19, 2003, 10:46:00 PM »

http://www.rcdc.nd.edu%3A80/compilations/Hydroxyl/OH.HTM#Anisole


......see (the copilation of chemical data ) ..browse,

also a very good Chemistry index of much useful material....

http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/genchem/



Also visit the wired chemist.....

http://wulfenite.fandm.edu/




Rhodium

  • Guest
Online Applets
« Reply #75 on: November 06, 2003, 04:46:00 PM »
Physicochemical Calculators

http://www.trimen.pl/witek/calculators/calculators.html



Physicochemical Properties of Popular Liquids

http://www.trimen.pl/witek/ciecze/liquids.html


foxy2

  • Guest
DMSO Property Info
« Reply #76 on: February 18, 2004, 07:06:00 PM »
This is a quite useful page about DMSO, they don't get any more comprehensive.
It contains the following:

Pharmaceutical Solubilities
     Pharmaceutical Solubilities Booklet

 Properties
     A Performance Profile of DMSO
     DMSO "Myths"
     DMSO Physical Properties
     DMSO the Truly Great Dipolar Solvent
     The DMSO Anion (Dimsyl Ion)
     Permeability of Commercial Solvents (AM, IND, HYG, Assoc. J.)

 Handling and Recovery of DMSO
     DMSO Handling Information
     DMSO Material Safety Data Sheet
     DMSO Recovery and Environmental Engineering
     Drying of DMSO
 
 Solvent Comparison and Contrast
     DMSO vs. NMP Comparison
     ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline

http://www.gaylordchemical.com/products/dmso/applications/pharmaceutical/default.asp


gsus

  • Guest
DMSO properties and uses
« Reply #77 on: March 29, 2004, 04:54:00 AM »
the largest Gaylord bulletin is strangely not on the above page. nothing new here, but lots of DMSO data, and a large number of outlines with refs. recommended reading. they have made me want to buy some, and i will.

http://www.gaylordchemical.com/bulletins/bulletin%20105.pdf



and just in case:


Rhodium

  • Guest
Inustrial Processing Methods (misleading title)
« Reply #78 on: October 03, 2004, 11:21:00 PM »
Unit Operations in Food Processing
R. L. Earle
E-Book:

http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/




CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Method of studying food process engineering
Basic principles of food process engineering
Dimensions and units
Summary.
Problems.

CHAPTER 2: MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES

Basic principles
Material balances
Energy balances
Summary
Problems

CHAPTER 3: FLUID-FLOW THEORY

Introduction
Fluid statics
Fluid dynamics
Viscosity
Streamline and turbulent flow
Energy losses in flow
Summary

CHAPTER 4: FLUID-FLOW APPLICATIONS

Introduction
Measurement of pressure in a fluid
Measurement of velocity in a fluid
Pumps and fans
Summary

CHAPTER 5: HEAT-TRANSFER THEORY

Introduction
Heat Conduction
Surface-Heat Transfer
Unsteady-State Heat Transfer
Radiation-Heat Transfer      
Convection-Heat Transfer
Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients
Heat Transfer from Condensing Vapours
Heat Transfer to Boiling Liquids
Summary

CHAPTER 6: HEAT-TRANSFER APPLICATIONS

Introduction
Heat Exchangers
Thermal Processing
Refrigeration, Chilling and Freezing
Summary
Problems

CHAPTER 7: DRYING

Basic Drying Theory
Mass Transfer in Drying
Psychrometry
Equilibrium Moisture Content
Air Drying
Conduction Drying
Drying Equipment
Moisture Loss in Freezers and Chillers
Summary

CHAPTER 8: EVAPORATION

The Single-Effect Evaporator
Multiple-Effect Evaporation
Vapour Recompression
Boiling Point Elevation
Evaporation of Heat-Sensitive Materials
Evaporation Equipment
Summary

CHAPTER 9: CONTACT-EQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES

Introduction
PART 1: THEORY
   Concentrations
   Gas-Liquid Equilibria
   Solid-Liquid Equiibria
   Equilibrium-Concentration Relationships
   Operating Conditions
   Calculation of Separation
PART 2: APPLICATIONS
   Gas Absorption
   Extraction and Washing
   Crystallization
   Membrane Separations
   Distillation
      Steam Distillation
      Vacuum Distillation
      Steam Distillation
      Vacuum Distillation
      Batch Distillation
      Distillation Equipment
Summary

CHAPTER 10: MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS

Introduction
The velocity of particles moving in a fluid
Sedimentation
Centrifugal separations
Filtration
Sieving
Summary.

CHAPTER 11: SIZE REDUCTION

Introduction
Grinding and cutting.
Emulsification
Summary.

CHAPTER 12: MIXING

Introduction
Characteristics of mixtures
Measurement of mixing
Particle mixing
Liquid mixing
Mixing equipment
Summary.

APPENDICES

INDEX TO FIGURES

INDEX TO EXAMPLES

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

USEFUL LINKS


Rhodium

  • Guest
Great Course in Inorganic/Organometallic Chem
« Reply #79 on: October 04, 2004, 11:23:00 AM »
Introduction

Inorganic chemistry covers the whole periodic table and in a way includes organic chemistry as a special case.

Inorganic compounds hold most world records and can display unique physical anc chemical properties, structures, reactivities and bonding situations that are not encountered in organic chemistry. Or, to state it shamelessly honest:
"In inorganic chemistry everything is super"
Prof. W. Beck, Munich, 1986

Course Material/Table of Contents:


Chem 462: Advanced Main Group Chemistry
Michael K. Denk

None

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_1.html)

None

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_2.html)

None

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_3.html)

None

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_4.html)

None

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_5.html)

None

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_6.html)



Course Material/Table of Contents:


CHM 331: Inorganic Chemistry II (Organometallics)
Michael K. Denk

Lecture Notes:

Introduction

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Introduction.html)
 
Part I: Main Group Elements

Chapter 1: Organometallic Compounds of Lithium, Sodium and Potassium

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Chapter_1.html)

Chapter 2: Organometallic Compounds of Magnesium

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Chapter_2.html)

Chapter 3: Organometallic Compounds of Boron and Aluminum

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Chapter_3.html)

Chapter 4: Organometallic Compounds of Si, Ge, Sn and Pb

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Chapter_4.html)

Chapter 10: Compounds of Phosphorus and Arsenic

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Chapter_10.html)

Part II: Transition Metal Chemistry

Chapter 5: Structure and Bonding

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_chapter_5.htm)

Chapter 6: Carbonyl Complexes & Hydrido Complexes

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_chapter_6.htm)

Chapter 7; Alkyl Complexes, Carbene Complexes, Carbyne Complexes

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_chapter_7.htm)

Chapter 8: pi-Complexes

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_chapter_8.htm)

Chapter 9: Organometallic Compounds of the Copper and Zinc Triads

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Chapter_9.html)

Part III:  Lanthanides

Chapter 11: The Lanthanides

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/331/331_Chapter_11.htm)



Example of entertaining "fact boxes" interspersed in the text:


Fulminates

For a fascinating account of fulminates see: F. Kurzer,

J. Chem Ed. 77, 851-857 (2000)

(http://131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_Literature/fulminate.pdf)

Fulminates have played an important role in the history of chemistry. Although mercury fulinate was possibly already obtained by the Dutch scientist Cornelius Drebbel (1572-1634), the first well documented discovery took place in the laboratory Johannes Kunckel (1630-1703).

The reason for the early discovery of mercury fulminate are due to its ease of formation: mercury or mercury oxide dissolved in nitric acid and then treated with ethanol under heating gives a mercury fulminate, Hg[CNO]2 as voluminous white precipitate. The mechanism of this reaction seems to be obscure.

"I once dissolved silver and mercury together in aqua fortis, and, having added spiritus vini,
set the vessel aside in the stable. When by the next day, its temperature had risen, there occured
such a thunder clap, that the groom thought someone had shot athim through the window, or that the
very devil had appeared in the stable. But I realized that it was my experiment that had exploded."

- Johannes Kunckel (1716)

Mercury fulminate was a crucial ingredient in Alfred Nobel's invention of dynamite (which layed the financial foundation for the Nobel prize). Soaking up nitroglicerine in kieselguhr had removed its shock sensitivity, but also required the introduction of a primer charge. Mercury fulminate worked very well and A. Nobel patented this discovery. It must be noted that mercury fulminate is unsuitable as a bulk explosive due to its high detonation velocity ("brisance" military testing led to gun barrels split in half....).



Example of many useful experimental procedures:


Ethyl 3-aminopropanoate  (5)
Carrie, R., Bull. Chem. Soc. Fr. 815 (1985)



To a 1 M solution of 4 in THF (from the bromo ester with NaN3 in DMSO) was added a molar equivalent of Ph3P, 1.5 equiv of water and a boiling chip (N2 evolution). After 8 h at 200°C and evaporation, the residue was treated with Et2O-hexane and Ph3P=O was filtered. This process was repeated and 5 was distilled at 40-45°C/10.5 mmHg (83%).



Historical footnotes - carbene [ :CH2 ] was first ever mentioned in print in 1944 by D. Duck: